Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Department of


Date of this Version



DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12806


Copyright by the Authors 2016. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


The instability of hybrid perovskite materials due to water and moisture arises as one major challenge to be addressed before any practical application of the demonstrated high efficiency perovskite solar cells. Here we report a facile strategy that can simultaneously enhance the stability and efficiency of p–i–n planar heterojunction-structure perovskite devices. Crosslinkable silane molecules with hydrophobic functional groups are bonded onto fullerene to make the fullerene layer highly water-resistant. Methylammonium iodide is introduced in the fullerene layer for n-doping via anion-induced electron transfer, resulting in dramatically increased conductivity over 100-fold. With crosslinkable silane-functionalized and doped fullerene electron transport layer, the perovskite devices deliver an efficiency of 19.5% with a high fill factor of 80.6%. A crosslinked silane-modified fullerene layer also enhances the water and moisture stability of the non-sealed perovskite devices by retaining nearly 90% of their original efficiencies after 30 days’ exposure in an ambient environment.