Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Department of


Date of this Version



Sensors 2015, 15, 31965–31972; doi:10.3390/s151229898.


Kesterson, Luck, & Sama in MDPI Sensors (2015) 15. Copyright © 2015, the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Open access, Creative Commons Attribution license 4.0.


An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 mL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.