Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Department of


Date of this Version



J. R. Soc. Interface 12: 20141000.


Copyright 2015 The Author(s)


In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology.We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON–OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and posttranslational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes.