Date of this Version
Pub. No.: US 20200035418 A1
Semiconductor devices, and methods of forming the same, include a cathode layer, an anode layer, and an active layer disposed between the cathode layer and the anode layer, wherein the active layer includes a perovskite layer. A passivation layer is disposed directly on a surface of the active layer between the cathode layer and the active layer, the passivation layer including a layer of material that passivates both cationic and anionic defects in the surface of the active layer.