Date of this Version
Bioactive Materials 5 (2020) 636–643 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.04.017
Repairing massive rotator cuﬀ tendon defects remains a challenge due to the high retear rate after surgical intervention. 3D printing has emerged as a promising technique that enables the fabrication of engineered tissues with heterogeneous structures and mechanical properties, as well as controllable microenvironments for tendon regeneration. In this study, we developed a new strategy for rotator cuﬀ tendon repair by combining a 3D printed scaﬀold of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) with cell-laden collagen-ﬁbrin hydrogels. We designed and fabricated two types of scaﬀolds: one featuring a separate layer-by-layer structure and another with a tri-layered structure as a whole. Uniaxial tensile tests showed that both types of scaﬀolds had improved mechanical properties compared to single-layered PLGA scaﬀolds. The printed scaﬀold with collagen-ﬁbrin hydrogels effectively supported the growth, proliferation, and tenogenic diﬀerentiation of human adipose-derived me-senchymal stem cells. Subcutaneous implantation of the multilayered scaﬀolds demonstrated their excellent in vivo biocompatibility. This study demonstrates the feasibility of 3D printing multilayered scaﬀolds for application in rotator cuﬀ tendon regeneration.