Date of this Version
ATURE COMMUNICATIONS | (2021)12:7 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20110-6 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications
Intentional doping is the core of semiconductor technologies to tune electrical and optical properties of semiconductors for electronic devices, however, it has shown to be a grand challenge for halide perovskites. Here, we show that some metal ions, such as silver, strontium, cerium ions, which exist in the precursors of halide perovskites as impurities, can n-dope the surface of perovskites from being intrinsic to metallic. The low solubility of these ions in halide perovskite crystals excludes the metal impurities to perovskite surfaces, leaving the interior of perovskite crystals intrinsic. Computation shows these metal ions introduce many electronic states close to the conduction band minimum of perovskites and induce n-doping, which is in striking contrast to passivating ions such as potassium and rubidium ion. The discovery of metallic surface doping of perovskites enables new device and material designs that combine the intrinsic interior and heavily doped surface of perovskites.