Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Department of


Date of this Version



Ultrasonics 110 (February 2021) 106269.

doi: 10.1016/j.ultras.2020.106269


Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. Used by permission.


Metal hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) processes are suitable to create complex structures that advance engineering performance. Hybrid AM can be used to create functionally graded materials for which the variation in microstructure and material properties across the domain is created through a synergized combination of fully coupled manufacturing processes and/or energy sources. This expansion in the engineering design and manufacturing spaces presents challenges for nondestructive evaluation, including the assessment of the sensitivity of nondestructive measurements to functional gradients. To address this problem, linear ultrasound measurements are used to interrogate 420 stainless steel coupons from three manufacturing methods: wrought, AM, and hybrid AM (directed energy deposition + laser peening). Wave speed, attenuation, and diffuse backscatter results are compared with microhardness measurements along the build/axial direction of the coupons, while microstructure images are used for qualitative verification. The ultrasound measurements compare well with the destructive measurements without any substantial loss in resolution. Furthermore, ultrasonic methods are shown to be effective for identification of the gradient and cyclic nature of the elastic properties and microstructure on the hybrid AM coupon. These results highlight the potential of ultrasound as an efficient and accessible nondestructive characterization method for hybrid AM samples and inform further nondestructive evaluation decisions in AM.