Date of this Version
Patent No .: US 11,335,513 B2
Semiconductor devices , and methods of forming the same , include a cathode layer , an anode layer , and an active layer disposed between the cathode layer and the anode layer , wherein the active layer includes a perovskite layer . A passivation layer is disposed directly on a surface of the active layer between the cathode layer and the active layer , the passivation layer including a layer of material that passivates both cationic and anionic defects in the surface of the active layer .