Modern Languages and Literatures, Department of


Date of this Version



Hispania 95.2 (2012): 211–26


Copyright © 2012 AATSP


In this essay, I analyze Pilar de Zubiaurre’s experience of exile by focusing on the articles she published in the magazine Euzko Deya and the letters she wrote and received in Mexico. Among the letters Zubiaurre received, I study those from María Martos de Baeza. My main argument is that for Zubiaurre, writing became a fundamental way to cultivate her transnational contacts and build bridges across the Atlantic. Through her articles, she travels back home in her imagination, while through her letters she connects as directly as possible with her native country. Both kinds of writing have positive consequences for Zubiaurre, by bolstering a sense of emotional security, personal validation, and cultural pride. However, there are also some negative outcomes, such as bigger obstacles to assimilating into the host culture, as well as both frustration and stress, for example when letters are lost or the author cannot fulfill her wish to return home.