Music, School of


Date of this Version



A DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Major: Music, Under the Supervision of Professor Brian Moore. Lincoln, Nebraska: April, 2015

Copyright (c) 2015 Ashley Danielle Gilbert


The purpose of this study was to determine what technologies are used in first-year instrumental music and to examine factors that influence the attitudes of teachers, students, and parents toward the use of those technologies. Many devices, software, and applications have been developed to aid instrumental students in their learning. However, because of the unique format of most beginning programs, it is unclear what types of technology are actually being used and what attitudes prevail for those involved in using technology. Two researcher-designed questionnaires, the Technology in Music Usage Questionnaire (TMUQ) and the Technology in Music Attitude Questionnaire (TMAQ), were administered to a sample of teachers, students, and parents associated with first-year elementary instrumental music in a large, Midwestern urban school district. Results indicated that while most teachers use technology in class (87.0%), it is generally only used up to a third of the class period (75.0%). Supplemental materials found within traditional method books account for the majority of technologies used in class (82.6%) and assigned for practice (39.1%), though a considerable portion of teachers (69.6%) does not assign technology for practice. Multilevel linear modeling revealed that effort expectancies, facilitating conditions, and the teacher’s technological experience significantly contributed to teacher attitudes toward technology. It was also discovered that performance expectancies and effort expectancies significantly contributed to student and parent attitudes. Although all participants were found to have positive attitudes toward using technology, results of a one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the attitude scores of teachers and students. Finally, bivariate correlations revealed no statistically significant relationships between the attitudes of participants and the time spent using technology either in class or in practice. Based on the results of the study, recommendations include the need for teacher selection of technologies to be individualized and voluntary. Professional development is necessary for teachers to become familiar with available resources and best practices for implementation. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the use of technology influences student achievement or motivation for participation in elementary instrumental music.

Adviser: Brian Moore