Date of this Version
We present a dryland irrigation mapping methodology that relies on remotely sensed inputs from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, globally extensive ancillary sources of gridded climate and agricultural data and on an advanced image classification algorithm. The methodology involves four steps. First, we use climate-based indices of surface moisture status and a map of cultivated areas to generate a potential irrigation index. Next, we identify remotely-sensed temporal and spectral signatures that are associated with presence of irrigation defined as full or partial artificial application of water to agricultural areas under dryland conditions excluding irrigated pastures, paddy rice fields, and other semi-aquatic crops. Here, the temporal indices are based on the difference in annual evolution of greenness between irrigated and non-irrigated crops, while spectral indices are based on the reflectance in the green and are sensitive to vegetation chlorophyll content associated with moisture stress. Third, we combine the climate-based potential irrigation index, remotely sensed indices, and learning samples within a decision tree supervised classification tool to make a binary irrigated/non-irrigated map. Finally, we apply a tree-based regression algorithm to derive the fraction of irrigated area within each pixel that has been identified as irrigated. Application of the proposed procedure over the continental US in the year 2001 produces an objective and comprehensive map that exhibits expected patterns: there is a strong east-west divide where the majority of irrigated areas is concentrated in the arid west along dry lowland valleys. Qualitative assessment of the map across different climatic and agricultural zones reveals a high quality product with sufficient detail when compared to existing large area irrigation databases. Accuracy assessment indicates that the map is highly accurate in the western US but less accurate in the east. Comparison of area estimates made with the new procedure to those reported at the state and county levels shows a strong correlation with a small bias and an estimated RMSE of 2500 km2, or little over 2% of the total irrigated area in the US. As a result, the future application of the new procedure at a global scale is promising but may require a better potential irrigation index, as well as the use of remotely sensed skin temperature measurements.