Date of this Version
NASA Technical Memorandum 101088, February 1989
VON KARMAN INSTITUTE FOR FLUID DYNAMICS Lecture Series 1989-04 Computational Fluid Dynanrics March 6-10, 1989. Rhode-St-Genèse, Belgium
The development of shock-capturing finite difference methods for hyperbolic conservation laws has been a rapidly growing area for the last decade. Many of the fundamental concepts, state-of-the-art developments and applications to fluid dynamics problems can only be found in meeting proceedings, scientific journals and internal reports. This paper attempts to give a unified and generalized formulation of a class of high-resolution, explicit and implicit shockcapturing methods, and to illustrate their versatility in various steady and unsteady complex shock waves, perfect gases, equilibrium real gases and nonequilibrium flow computations. These numerical methods are formulated for the purpose of ease and efficient implementation into a practical computer code. The various constructions of high-resolution shock-capturing methods fall nicely into the present framework and a computer code can be implemented with the various methods as separate modules. Included is a systematic overview of the basic design principle of the various related numerical methods. Special emphasis will be on the construction of the basic nonlinear, spatially secondand third-order schemes for nonlinear scalar hyperbolic conservation laws and the methods of extending these nonlinear scalar schemes to nonlinear systems via the approximate Riemann solvers and flux-vector splitting approaches. Generalization of these methods to efficiently include equilibrium real gases and large systems of nonequilibrium flows will be discussed. Some issues concerning the applicability of these methods that were designed for homogeneous hyperbolic conservation laws to problems containing stiff source terms and shock waves are also included. The performance of some of these schemes is illustrated by numerical examples for one-, two- and three-dimensional gas-dynamics problems. The use of the Lax-Friedrichs numerical flux to obtain high-resolution shock-capturing schemes is generalized. This method can be extended to nonlinear systems of equations without the use of Riemarm solvers or flux-vector splitting approaches and thus provides a large savings for multidimensional, equilibrium real gases and nonequilibrium flow computations.