National Park Service


Date of this Version



Published in Weber, Samantha, and David Harmon, eds. 2008. Rethinking Protected Areas in a Changing World: Proceedings of the 2007 GWS Biennial Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites. Hancock, Michigan: The George Wright Society.


This is an introduction to a new restoration workbook. It is a guide for writing specifications for ecological restoration in the National Park Service (NPS).The NPS has unique policies, guidelines, and procedures that govern ecological restoration of parklands. The policy guidance in this restoration workbook is taken from those management documents. Standards and specifications must be modified frequently.

The purpose of this workbook is to assist NPS staff in planning, designing, writing scopes of services and construction specifications for ecological restoration. It is based on engineering standards and specifications, and past experiences from actual park projects.

Many NPS restoration projects require that certain genetic and environmental protection standards be met. Standard specifications such as those published by the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Construction Standards Institute (CSI), and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) are frequently modified for park projects.

Below is a summary of the eight sections included in the workbook. This document, which is over 550 pages, uses “object links” for ease of navigation and locating specific subjects. These examples will help improve the efficiency of specification writing and better ecological restoration. This workbook provides planning document outlines and organizes planning guidance processes. It will give sample scopes of services and construction specifications. NPS restoration manuals are also provided; the workbook includes two manuals which interpret restoration guidelines. The restoration manuals have been used previously in many different types of NPS revegetation and restoration projects.