Date of this Version
JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 22 1691-1705 NOVEMBER 2005
A recent comprehensive effort to digitize U.S. daily temperature and precipitation data observed prior to 1948 has resulted in a major enhancement in the computer database of the records of the National Weather Service’s cooperative observer network. Previous digitization efforts had been selective, concentrating on state or regional areas. Special quality control procedures were applied to these data to enhance their value for climatological analysis. The procedures involved a two-step process. In the first step, each individual temperature and precipitation data value was evaluated against a set of objective screening criteria to flag outliers. These criteria included extreme limits and spatial comparisons with nearby stations. The following data were automatically flagged: 1) all precipitation values exceeding 254 mm (10 in.) and 2) all temperature values whose anomaly from the monthly mean for that station exceeded five standard deviations. Addi- tional values were flagged based on differences with nearby stations; in this case, metrics were used to rank outliers so that the limited resources were concentrated on those values most likely to be invalid. In the second step, each outlier was manually assessed by climatologists and assigned one of the four following flags: valid, plausible, questionable, or invalid. In excess of 22 400 values were manually assessed, of which about 48% were judged to be invalid. Although additional manual assessment of outliers might further improve the quality of the database, the procedures applied in this study appear to have been successful in identifying the most flagrant errors.