Natural Resources, School of



Christopher J. Chizinski

Document Type


Date of this Version



Published in Human Dimensions of Wildlife 2021, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 576–595.



Copyright © 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Used by permission.


Motivations for hunting and fishing extend beyond harvesting game and include social, psychological, emotional, and physical benefits. We used data from a web-based questionnaire to compare relationships between preferred hunting or fishing activity types, state of residence, and motivations of hunters and anglers across the central United States (U.S.). Exploratory factor analysis yielded four motivation factors: nature, social, food, and challenge. Differences in terms of state were negligible across all motivation factors (η2p < .01), indicating similarity across states. Nature (η2p = .01) and social (η2p < .01) factors were the first and second most important factors across activity types. We observed larger differences among the challenge (η2p = .03), and food (η2p = .15) factors, primarily driven by big game hunters. Big game hunters rated the food motivation factor greater than the other activity types. Overall, our results indicate that there might be a greater universality in these motivation factors among activity types and locations in the U.S