Date of this Version
Pattanateeradetch, A.; Sakulthaew, C.; Angkaew, A.; Sutjarit, S.; Poompoung, T.; Lin, Y.-T.; Harris, C.E.; Comfort, S.; Chokejaroenrat, C. Fabrication of Ternary Nanoparticles for Catalytic Ozonation to Treat Parabens: Mechanisms, Efficiency, and Effects on Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Eker Leiomyoma Tumor-3 Cells. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/ nano12203573
The use of parabens in personal care products can result in their leakage into water bodies, especially in public swimming pools with insufficient water treatment. We found that ferrite-based nanomaterials could catalytically enhance ozone efficiency through the production of reactive oxygen species. Our objective was to develop a catalytic ozonation system using ternary nanocomposites that could minimize the ozone supply while ensuring the treated water was acceptable for disposal into the environment. A ternary CuFe2O4/CuO/Fe2O3 nanocomposite (CF) delivered excellent degradation performance in catalytic ozonation systems for butylparaben (BP). By calcining with melamine, we obtained the CF/g-C3N4 (CFM) nanocomposite, which had excellent magnetic separation properties with slightly lower degradation efficiency than CF, due to possible self-agglomeration that reduced its electron capture ability. The presence of other constituent ions in synthetic wastewater and actual discharge water resulted in varying degradation rates due to the formation of secondary active radicals. 1O2 and •O2− were the main dominant reactive species for BP degradation, which originated from the O3 adsorption that occurs on the CF≡Cu(I)–OH and CF≡Fe(III)–OH surface, and from the reaction with •OH from indirect ozonation. Up to 50% of O3 -treated water resulted in >80% ELT3 cell viability, the presence of well-adhered cells, and no effect on the young tip of Ceratophyllum demersum L. Overall, our results demonstrated that both materials could be potential catalysts for ozonation because of their excellent degrading performance and, consequently, their non-toxic by-products.