Natural Resources, School of


Date of this Version



ACS Omega 2023, 8, 36136−36151


Open access.


Single activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) in a homogeneous system is sometimes insufficient for producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) for water treatment applications. In this work, manganese spinel ferrite and graphitic carbon nitride (MnFe2O4/g-C3N4; MnF) were successfully used as an activator for PMS under visible light irradiation to remove the four-mostdetected- hormone-contaminated water under different environmental conditions. The incorporation of g-C3N4 in the nanocomposites led to material enhancements, including increased crystallinity, reduced particle agglomeration, amplified magnetism, improved recyclability, and increased active surface area, thereby facilitating the PMS activation and electron transfer processes. The dominant active radical species included singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide anions (O2 •−), which were more susceptible to the estrogen molecular structure than testosterone due to the higher electron-rich moieties. The self-scavenging effect occurred at high PMS concentrations, whereas elevated constituent ion concentrations can be both inhibitors and promoters due to the generation of secondary radicals. The MnF/PMS/vis system degradation byproducts and possible pathways of 17β-estradiol and 17α-methyltestosterone were identified. The impact of hormone-treated water on Oryza sativa L. seed germination, shoot length, and root length was found to be lower than that of untreated water. However, the viability of both ELT3 and Sertoli TM4 cells was affected only at higher water compositions. Our results confirmed that MnF and visible light could be potential PMS activators due to their superior degradation performance and ability to produce safer treated water.