Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit


Date of this Version



Haak, D. M., B. J. Stephen, R. A. Kill, N. A. Smeenk, C. R. Allen, and K. L. Pope. 2014. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis). Management of Biological Invasions 5:371-375.


© 2014 by Danielle M. Haak, Bruce J. Stephen, Robert A. Kill, Nicholas A. Smeenk, Craig R. Allen, and Kevin L. Pope. Journal compilation © 2014 REABIC


The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.