Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit


Date of this Version



Garmestani, A.S., C. R. Allen, and C. S. Holling. 2013. Cross-scale morphology. In A. H. El-Shaarawi and W. W. Piegorsch, editors. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK.


US government work.


The scaling of physical, biological, ecological, and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.