Nutrition and Health Sciences, Department of




Date of this Version



BioFactors, 44(3):207–218, 2018


Copyright 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

DOI 10.1002/biof.1419


Oxygen is a fundamental element for the life of a large number of living organisms allowing an efficient energetic utilization of substrates. Organisms relying on oxygen evolved complex structures for oxygen delivery and biochemical machineries dealing with its safe utilization and the ability to overcome the potentially harmful consequences of changes in oxygen availability. On fact, cells composing complex Eukaryotic organisms are set to live within an optimum narrow range of oxygen, quite specific for each cell type. Minute modifications of oxygen availability, either positive or negative, induce the expression of specific genes, the major actors of this responses being the transcription factors HIF and Nrf2 that control the attempt to cope with low oxygen (hypoxia) or to either high oxygen or to an oxygen “overflow,” respectively. This review describes the interaction between these two transcription factors and their interaction with the transcription factor NF-kB acting as a pivotal determinant of final cell