Nutrition and Health Sciences, Department of


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Cancio, L. P. M., Danao, M.-G. C., Sullivan, G. A., & Chaves, B. D. (2023). Evaluation of peroxyacetic acid, liquid buffered vinegar, and cultured dextrose fermentate as potential antimicrobial interventions for raw chicken livers. Journal of Food Safety, e13054. https://


Open access.


This study aimed to evaluate the use of peroxyacetic acid (PAA), buffered vinegar (BV), and cultured dextrose fermentate (CDF) to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated raw chicken livers, one of the most consumed offal around the world. Samples were inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of poultry-borne Salmonella to obtain 106 CFU/g and immersed for 90 s with agitation in one of the following treatments: distilled water (control), 450 ppm PAA, 2.0% (w/v) BV, or 1.5% (w/v) CDF, prior to storing at 4oC. Salmonella was enumerated on XLD agar and monitored for 14 days. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. After immersion, there was a significant Salmonella reduction (p < .05) with all treatments, including the control. PAA resulted in the greatest numerical reduction at 0.65 ± 0.12 log; however, there were no significant differences in the reductions among all other treatments (p > .05). After 14 days, higher numerical reductions were observed for PAA, but only when compared to CDF. Although similar reductions (p > .05) were noted after 14 days except for CDF, Salmonella counts were lowest in all timepoints when PAA was used. PAA and CDF inhibited the growth of aerobic bacteria until day 3 while BV inhibited the growth up to 7 days. Regarding objective color, chicken livers immersed in PAA became lighter, but the difference was not sustained over time. No differences were observed in redness or yellowness values across any treatments.