Nutrition and Health Sciences, Department of


Date of this Version



BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2005, 4:67, pp.1-27. doi:10.1186/1475-925X-4-67


© 2005 Beck et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. Used by permission.


The purpose of this review is to examine the literature that has investigated mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and frequency responses during dynamic muscle actions. To date, the majority of MMG research has focused on isometric muscle actions. Recent studies, however, have examined the MMG time and/or frequency domain responses during various types of dynamic activities, including dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) and isokinetic muscle actions, as well as cycle ergometry. Despite the potential influences of factors such as changes in muscle length and the thickness of the tissue between the muscle and the MMG sensor, there is convincing evidence that during dynamic muscle actions, the MMG signal provides valid information regarding muscle function. This argument is supported by consistencies in the MMG literature, such as the close relationship between MMG amplitude and power output and a linear increase in MMG amplitude with concentric torque production. There are still many issues, however, that have yet to be resolved, and the literature base for MMG during both dynamic and isometric muscle actions is far from complete. Thus, it is important to investigate the unique applications of MMG amplitude and frequency responses with different experimental designs/methodologies to continually reassess the uses/limitations of MMG.