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Immunocontraceptive technology appears to be a viable approach for population control of nuisance species of wildlife. The administration of immunocontraceptive vaccines is presently performed by syringe injection or by remote delivery via darts or biobullets. In order for immunocontraception to be successful in free-roaming animals, the vaccine must be delivered in an oral form. Recent advances in molecular biology, immunology, and pathology of mucosal infections give us tools to develop effective oral vaccines. Oral vaccines encapsulated in either biodegradable microspheres, synthetic adhesive liposomes, or nonvirulent live vectors hold promise as a practical approach for immunocontraception of free-roaming wildlife. Issues of safety, species specificity, and field application of the vaccine will need to be addressed.