USDA National Wildlife Research Center Symposia


Date of this Version

August 2007


Published in: Witmer, G. W., W. C. Pitt, and K. A. Fagerstone, editors. 2007. Managing vertebrate invasive species: proceedings of an international symposium. USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Also available online at


ī The coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui) is native to Puerto Rico and was accidentally introduced to the State of Hawai‘i through contaminated nursery products from the Caribbean. Since its introduction in the late 1980s, coqui have become widely dispersed and in some areas population densities have reached 55,000 frogs/ha. The coqui frog is a species of concern because individual frogs can produce sound levels of 80 decibels (at 0.5 m), which has caused sleep loss to residents and affected the quality of life in Hawai‘i. Economic concerns in infested areas include diminished property values and sales, impacts on tourism, and decreased sales in the floriculture and nursery industry. In addition, research indicates that the coqui has potential ecological effects as they might predate on endangered invertebrates and shift nutrient cycling processes in native forests. Control efforts have focused on habitat modification and applying chemical solutions of either 16% citric acid or 3% hydrated lime. Hot water or vapor treatments of plants are also effective control methods. Eradication of the coqui frog is not considered attainable on the Island of Hawai‘i and seems unlikely for Maui, but may be possible on the islands of Kaua‘i and O‘ahu.