USDA National Wildlife Research Center Symposia


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We evaluated 117 carbocyclic compounds for their bird repellent effects in no-choice (one-bottle) drinking tests and summarized the results in this paper. Compounds derivative of aromatic heterocycles, acetophenones and carbocyclic compounds containing sulfur are often strong repellents. Anthranilates, aromatic alcohols, aromatic aldehydes, and carbocyclic compounds containing nitrogen are moderately strong repellents. However, the potency of anthranilates is highly variable, depending upon the nature of the substitutions. Acetates and benzoates are weak repellents. Benzoic acids and amino acids are not repellent to starlings. In addition, discussions of the type of behavioral assay, units of measure, and dose-response characterizations include recommendations for future studies of repellents. Convergence on the types of information reported and the details of experiments will enhance our ability to compare the efficacy of repellents across studies.