Date of this Version
Based upon Active Calculus by Matthew Boelkins
Several fundamental ideas in calculus are more than 2000 years old. As a formal subdiscipline of mathematics, calculus was first introduced and developed in the late 1600s, with key independent contributions from Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Mathematicians agree that the subject has been understood rigorously since the work of Augustin Louis Cauchy and Karl Weierstrass in the mid 1800s when the field of modern analysis was developed, in part to make sense of the infinitely small quantities on which calculus rests. As a body of knowledge, calculus has been completely understood for at least 150 years. The discipline is one of our great human intellectual achievements: among many spectacular ideas, calculus models how objects fall under the forces of gravity and wind resistance, explains how to compute areas and volumes of interesting shapes, enables us to work rigorously with infinitely small and infinitely large quantities, and connects the varying rates at which quantities change to the total change in the quantities themselves.
While each author of a calculus textbook certainly offers their own creative perspective on the subject, it is hardly the case that many of the ideas they present are new. Indeed, the mathematics community broadly agrees on what the main ideas of calculus are, as well as their justification and their importance; the core parts of nearly all calculus textbooks are very similar. As such, it is our opinion that in the 21st century and the age of the internet, no one should be required to purchase a calculus text to read, to use for a class, or to find a coherent collection of problems to solve. Calculus belongs to humankind, not any individual author or publishing company. Thus, a primary purpose of this work is to present a calculus text that is free. In addition, instructors who are looking for a calculus text should have the opportunity to download the source files and make modifications that they see fit; thus this text is open-source.
PreCalculus Review • Functions • Exponential and Logarithmic Functions • Trigonometric Functions
1 Understanding the Derivative • Introduction to Continuity • Introduction to Limits • How do we Measure Velocity? • The Derivative of a Function at a Point • The Derivative Function • Interpreting, Estimating, and Using the Derivative • The Second Derivative • Differentiability
2 Computing Derivatives • Elementary Derivative Rules • The Sine and Cosine Functions • The Product and Quotient Rules • Derivatives of Other Trigonometric Functions • The Chain Rule • Derivatives of Inverse Functions • Derivatives of Functions Given Implicitly • Hyperbolic Functions • The Tangent Line Approximation • The Mean Value Theorem
3 Using Derivatives • Using Derivatives to Identify Extreme Values • Global Optimization • Applied Optimization • Using Derivatives to Describe Families of Functions • Related Rates • Using Derivatives to Evaluate Limits • Parametric Equations
4 The Definite Integral • Determining distance traveled from velocity • Riemann Sums • The Definite Integral • The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
5 Evaluating Integrals • Constructing Accurate Graphs of Antiderivatives • Antiderivatives from Formulas • Differential Equations • The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus • Integration by Substitution • Integration by Parts • Other Options for Finding Algebraic Antiderivatives • Using Technology and Tables to Evaluate Integrals • Numerical Integration • Improper Integrals
6 Using Definite Integrals • Using Definite Integrals to Find Area and Length • Using Definite Integrals to Find Volume • Area and Arc Length in Polar Coordinates • Density, Mass, and Center of Mass • Physics Applications: Work, Force, and Pressure
7 Sequences and Series • Sequences • Geometric Series • Convergence of Series • Alternating Series and Absolute Convergence • Power Series • Taylor Polynomials and Taylor Series • Applications of Taylor Series
8 Differential Equations: An Introduction to Differential Equations • Qualitative Behavior of Solutions to DEs • Euler's Method • Separable differential equations • Modeling with Differential Equations • Population Growth and the Logistic Equation
Back Matter: A Short Table of Integrals • Index • Colophon
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