Agricultural Research Division of IANR


Date of this Version



Yadav R, Jha P, Kniss AR, Lawrence NC, Sbatella GM (2023). Effect of osmotic potential and temperature on germination of kochia (Bassia scoparia) populations from the U.S. Great Plains. Weed Sci. doi: 10.1017/wsc.2023.12


Open access.


Development of integrated weed management strategies requires knowledge of weed emergence timing and patterns, which are regulated primarily by water and thermal requirements for seed germination. Laboratory experiments were conducted in fall 2017 to fall 2018 to quantify the effect of osmotic potential and temperature on germination of 44 kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] populations under controlled conditions. Bassia scoparia populations were collected in fall 2016 from northern (near Huntley, MT, and Powell, WY) and southern (near Lingle, WY, and Scottsbluff, NE) regions of the U.S. Great Plains. Ten osmotic potentials from 0 to −2.1 MPa and eight constant temperatures from 4 to 26 C were evaluated. Response of B. scoparia populations to osmotic potential did not differ between the northern and southern regions. At an osmotic potential of 0 MPa, all B. scoparia populations had greater than 98% germination, and the time to achieve 50% germination (t50) was less than 1 d. At −1.6 MPa, 25% of seeds of all B. scoparia populations germinated. Osmotic potentials of −0.85 and −1.9 MPa reduced B. scoparia germination by 10% and 90%, respectively. Regardless of temperature regime, all populations exhibited greater than 88% germination. The germination rate was highest at temperatures between 15 to 26 C and did not differ between populations from northern versus southern regions. At this temperature range, all populations had a t50 of less than 1 d. However, at 4 C, B. scoparia populations from the northern region had a higher germination rate (5 h) and cumulative germination (7%) than populations from the southern region. Overall, these results indicate a wide range of optimum temperatures and osmotic potential requirements for B. scoparia germination.