Date of this Version
Physical Review Letters (2007) 99: 210401.
The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is a purely quantum mechanical effect. The original (classified as Type-I) AB-phase shift exists in experimental conditions where the electromagnetic fields and forces are zero. It is the absence of forces that makes the ABeffect entirely quantum mechanical. Although the AB-phase shift has been demonstrated unambiguously, the absence of forces in Type-I AB-effects has never been shown. Here, we report the observation of the absence of time delays associated with forces of the magnitude needed to explain the AB-phase shift for a macroscopic system.