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The magnetic and optical properties of multiferroic GdMnO3 nanoparticles synthesized by a polymerized complex method have been investigated. The GdMnO3 nanoparticles crystallized in orthorhombic perovskite-type structure. The zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations show that complicated magnetic transitions occur in a temperature range from 2 to 60 K, which were confirmed by magnetic hysteresis loops. Three shoulder absorption peaks centered at about 2.0, 2.3, and 2.7 eV are attributed to the Mn (3d)-electronic transitions, while an absorption peak at around 4.1 eV corresponds to the charge-transfer transitions between O (2p) and Mn (3d) states. UV emission at about 396 and 406 nm and blue emission at around 466 nm have been found, which may be attributed to the spin-allowed charge-transfer transitions.