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We have investigated the ferroelectric domain structure formed in a Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 single crystal by cooling the crystal through the Curie point. Imaging the etched surface structure using a scanning force microscope (SFM) in both the topographic mode and the piezoresponse mode revealed that a multidomain structure of nanoscale island-like domains was formed. The island-like domains could be inverted by applying an appropriate voltage using a conductive SFM tip. Furthermore, a nanoscale periodically inverted-domain structure was artificially fabricated using the crystal which underwent poling treatment.