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While the elements vary somewhat from list to list most authors agree that the five points presented here constitute the essential aspects of PSI. Even wider variation exists among lists of learning principles prepared by various psychologists. While some arbitrariness is inevitable, the principles offered in support of each element of the PSI approach were chosen in an attempt to represent at least a modicum of consensus among psychologists concerning the way humans learn. These principles are offered here primarily as a means of showing how the Keller Plan incorporates some of the basic concepts of learning.