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Peanut fields in four governorates of Egypt were surveyed to identify species of Meloidogyne present. Fourteen populations obtained from peanut roots were all identified as M. javanica based on perineal patterns, stylet and body lengths of second-stage juveniles, esterase phenotypes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mtDNA. Three of 14 populations, all from contiguous fields in the Behara governorate, had individuals with a unique two-isozyme esterase phenotype. All populations of M. javanica tested on peanut had levels of reproduction on the M. arenaria-susceptible peanut cultivar Florunner that were not different from M. arenaria (P = 0.05), and had lower levels of reproduction on the M. arenaria-resistant genotype TxAG-7 than on Florunner (P = 0.05). Reproduction of the five Egyptian populations of M. javanica tested was lower on root-knot nematode resistant tomato cultivars Better Boy and Celebrity than on the root-knot nematode susceptible cultivar Rutgers (P = 0.05). These data are evidence that some populations of M. javanica are parasitic on peanut and that the peanut and tomato genotypes resistant to M. arenaria are also resistant to these populations of M. javanica.