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Plant fatty acids are used forfood, feed, fuel, and industrial materials. Structurally and chemically diverse fatty acids, referred to as unusual or specialized fatty acids, are found in the seed oils of diverse plant species. Many unusual fatty acids have potential use as alternative and renewable sources of biofuels and biobased industrial feedstocks due to their variant structures' physical or functional properties. Oils enriched in these fatty acids can increase the value of oilseed crops and provide co-products that can be readily extracted from lignocellulosic materials in biomass crops. Here, we describe recent progress in strategies for enhancement of oil production and quality in oilseed crops and the extension of this knowledge for metabolic engineering of biomass crops. Successful implementation of these strategies, in part, through the use of emerging synthetic biology tools, will provide added product value for the economic sustainability of biomass crops as bioenergy feedstocks.