Plant Science Innovation, Center for


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Saucedo-García, M.; González-Solís, A.; Rodríguez-Mejía, P.; Lozano-Rosas, G.; Olivera-Flores, T.d.J.; Carmona-Salazar, L.; Guevara-García, A.A.; Cahoon, E.B.; Gavilanes-Ruíz, M. Sphingolipid Long-Chain Base Signaling in Compatible and Non-Compatible Plant–Pathogen Interactions in Arabidopsis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 4384. ijms24054384


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The chemical diversity of sphingolipids in plants allows the assignment of specific roles to special molecular species. These roles include NaCl receptors for glycosylinositolphosphoceramides or second messengers for long-chain bases (LCBs), free or in their acylated forms. Such signaling function has been associated with plant immunity, with an apparent connection to mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This work used in planta assays with mutants and fumonisin B1 (FB1) to generate varying levels of endogenous sphingolipids. This was complemented with in planta pathogenicity tests using virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae strains. Our results indicate that the surge of specific free LCBs and ceramides induced by FB1 or an avirulent strain trigger a biphasic ROS production. The first transient phase is partially produced by NADPH oxidase, and the second is sustained and is related to programmed cell death. MPK6 acts downstream of LCB buildup and upstream of late ROS and is required to selectively inhibit the growth of the avirulent but not the virulent strain. Altogether, these results provide evidence that a LCB– MPK6– ROS signaling pathway contributes differentially to the two forms of immunity described in plants, upregulating the defense scheme of a non-compatible interaction.