Date of this Version
AHMAD M (2023) Plant breeding advancements with “CRISPR-Cas” genome editing technologies will assist future food security. Front. Plant Sci. 14:1133036. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2023.1133036
Genome editing techniques are being used to modify plant breeding, which might increase food production sustainably by 2050. A product made feasible by genome editing is becoming better known, because of looser regulation and widespread acceptance. The world’s population and food supply would never have increased proportionally under current farming practices. The development of plants and food production has been greatly impacted by global warming and climate change. Therefore, minimizing these effects is crucial for agricultural production that is sustainable. Crops are becoming more resilient to abiotic stress because of sophisticated agricultural practices and a better understanding of the abiotic stress response mechanism. Both conventional and molecular breeding techniques have been used to create viable crop types both processes are time-consuming. Recently, plant breeders have shown an interest in genome editing approaches for genetic manipulation that use clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9). To ensure the security of the food supply in the future, plant kinds with desired traits must be developed. A completely new era in plant breeding has begun because of the revolution in genome editing techniques based on the CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas9) systems. All plants may effectively target a particular gene or group of loci using Cas9 and single-guide RNA (sgRNA). CRISPR/Cas9 can thereby save time and labor compared to conventional breeding methods. An easy, quick, and efficient method for directly altering the genetic sequences in cells is with the CRISPR and Cas9 systems. The CRISPR-Cas9 system, which was developed from components of the earliest known bacterial immune system, allows for targeted gene breakage and gene editing in a variety of cells/RNA sequences to guide endonuclease cleavage specificity in the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Editing can be directed to practically any genomic site by altering the guide RNA (gRNA) sequence and delivering it to a target cell along with the Cas9 endonuclease. We summarize recent CRISPR/Cas9 plant research findings, investigate potential applications in plant breeding, and make predictions about likely future breakthroughs and approaches to food security through 2050.