Psychology, Department of


Document Type


Date of this Version



NeuroImage 237 (2021) 118164 .


This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Many recent developments surrounding the functional network organization of the human brain have focused on data that have been averaged across groups of individuals. While such group-level approaches have shed considerable light on the brain’s large-scale distributed systems, they conceal individual differences in network organization, which recent work has demonstrated to be common and widespread. This individual variability produces noise in group analyses, which may average together regions that are part of different functional systems across participants, limiting interpretability. However, cost and feasibility constraints may limit the possibility for individual-level mapping within studies. Here our goal was to leverage information about individual-level brain organization to probabilistically map common functional systems and identify locations of high inter-subject consensus for use in group analyses. We probabilistically mapped 14 functional networks in multiple datasets with relatively high amounts of data. All networks show “core ”(high-probability) regions, but differ from one another in the extent of their higher-variability components. These patterns replicate well across four datasets with different participants and scanning parameters. We produced a set of high-probability regions of interest (ROIs) from these probabilistic maps; these and the probabilistic maps are made publicly available, together with a tool for querying the network membership probabilities associated with any given cortical location. These quantitative estimates and public tools may allow researchers to apply information about inter-subject consensus to their own fMRI studies, improving inferences about systems and their functional specializations.

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