Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version



Tob. Induc. Dis. 2021;19(July):59


Published by European Publishing. © 2021 Cano M.T. et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. (


INTRODUCTION Tobacco disparities persist among low-income smokers who seek care from safety-net clinics. Many of these patients suffer from chronic illnesses (CILs) that are associated with and exacerbated by smoking. The objective of the current study was to examine the differences between safety-net patients with and without CILs in terms of nicotine dependence and related factors (such as depression, anxiety) and self-efficacy regarding ability to abstain from smoking. METHODS Sixty-four low-income smokers who thought about or intended to quit smoking were recruited from the San Francisco Health Network (SFHN) and assessed for CILs, nicotine dependence, depression, anxiety, and smoking abstinence self-efficacy. Four one-way analyses of variance were used to examine the difference between those with and without CIL on the latter four variables. RESULTS The CIL group had significantly higher anxiety (CIL: 8.0 ± 5.35; non-CIL: 4.44 ± 3.48; p=0.02) and tended to have higher nicotine dependence (CIL: 5.40 ± 2.58; non-CIL: 3.88 ± 2.28; p=0.04). In the CIL group, nicotine dependence was positively correlated with anxiety [r(62)=0.39; p<0.01] and negatively correlated with smoking abstinence self-efficacy [r(62)= -0.38; p<0.01]. Both depression (Spearman’s rho=0.39; p<0.01) and anxiety (Spearman’s rho=0.29; p<0.05) were associated with total number of CIL categories. CONCLUSIONS Safety-net patients who smoke and suffer from CILs may be suffering from higher levels of anxiety and have less confidence in their ability to quit smoking. Incorporating mood management and developing interventions that increase a sense of self-efficacy for refraining from smoking may be necessary to help low-income smokers quit smoking.

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