Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version

May 2002


Published in Nicotine & Tobacco Research (2002) 4, 195– 200.


The present study investigated the effects of two herbal components (BACCOFFTM and DIPSTOP ™) of a commercially available smokeless tobacco treatment program for reducing subjective withdrawal symptoms during deprivation. One component, BACCOFF™, is a non-nicotinic chew. The second component, DIPSTOP™, is a liquid containing the alkaloid lobeline, which to some extent mimics peripheral nicotinic effects. All participants (N = 22 males) were placed in four conditions: BACCOFF™ + DIPSTOP™, BACCOFF™ + placebo control, DIPSTOP™ only, and placebo control only. The conditions involved 48 h of deprivation, and subjects were exposed to one condition per week for 4 weeks. Withdrawal measures were taken at baseline, 24 h, and 48 h of deprivation. Individuals were randomly assigned, and conditions were counterbalanced. Results showed that BACCOFF™, as compared with DIPSTOP™, significantly reduced withdrawal symptoms but not craving. These data suggest that behavioral/sensory substitutes’ influence on withdrawal might be routed through the product’s ability to approximate the preferred moist snuff.