Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version

March 1998


Published in Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 6:2 (1998), pp. 205-208. Copyright 1998 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. Used by permission.


The present study was designed to document smokeless tobacco withdrawal patterns and to examine differential withdrawal responses between smokers and smokeless users. Participants (N = 19) were studied under deprivation and nondeprivation conditions, 1 condition per week. The Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist was administered to assess cognitive and affective changes. Both smokers and smokeless users experienced substantially more withdrawal at 48-hr deprivation compared to the 48-hr nondeprivation condition. Participants in both groups endorsed decreasingly fewer withdrawal symptoms from 0 hr to 48 hr on nondeprivation days. This downward trend suggests a need for stabilizing withdrawal responses before deprivation.