Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version

October 2005


Published in STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING, 12(4), 620–641. Copyright © 2005, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Used by permission.


The Bollen–Stine bootstrap can be used to correct for standard error and fit statistic bias that occurs in structural equation modeling (SEM) applications due to nonnormal data. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the use of a custom SAS macro program that can be used to implement the Bollen–Stine bootstrap with existing SEM software. Although this article focuses on missing data, the macro can be used with complete data sets as well. A series of heuristic analyses are presented, along with detailed programming instructions for each of the commercial SEM software packages.