Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version



Published in Addictive Behaviors 33:11 (November 2008), pp. 1454–1462; special issue on Anxiety, Stress and Trauma: Comorbidity with Tobacco and Marijuana Use and Disorders; doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.04.008 Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. Used by permission.


The current study tested the emotional reactivity of smokers with and without histories of major depression (MDD Hx) and trauma exposure (TE). Four counterbalanced conditions nested negative (e.g., dysphoric) or neutral mood inductions with in vivo versus control smoking paraphernalia cues (Neutral+Control; Neutral+Cigarette; Neg+Control; Neg+Cigarette). Mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tested between and within subjects differences in negative affective symptoms pre- to post-exposure across four groups (TE+MDD Hx; TE only; MDD Hx only; no history). Results produced two notable effects. First, TE only individuals endorsed the greatest increase in depressive symptoms across both negative mood induction conditions (regardless of smoking paraphernalia) compared with other groups. Second, dual history participants (TE+MDD Hx) show a potentiated depressive response to the Neg+Cigarette condition compared with the Neg+Control condition. Implications to a depression-specific negative affective vulnerability among TE only smokers that is independent of MDD Hx and greater than smokers with a MDD Hx are discussed.