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Individuals often have low rates of compliance with treatment recommendations. We examined the role that experienced affect at the time of illness diagnosis might play in influencing thoughts and feelings relating treatment compliance. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, neutral, or negative affect induction after imagining they were diagnosed with kidney cancer. They then reported on thoughts and feelings about the illness and the treatment regimen. Participants also reported interest in additional information about the illness and behavioral intentions for complying with the treatment regimen. Affect significantly influenced interest in information and behavioral intentions. Both effects were mediated by the influence of affect on participants’ self-efficacy beliefs. These mediational findings support a mood-as-resource interpretation of the role of affect in treatment compliance.