Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version



Ment Health Subst Use. 2009 October 1; 2(3): 191–202.


Published by Taylor & Francis


Background—Research has reported a high rate of substance dependence in traumatized individuals who do not develop PTSD (TWP). While past studies have failed to consistently demonstrate that TWP individuals experience PTSD symptoms, findings have indicated that TWP and a history of substance dependence aside from nicotine dependence (SDH) are linked to affect disruption.

Aims—The present study explored positive and negative affective mechanisms across four groups with varying SDH and TWP including TWP + SDH, TWP only, SDH only, or no history. Researchers hypothesized that adults (n = 78) would be more emotionally reactive to an experimentally-induced negative mood compared to a neutral mood induction as the presence of co-existing TWP and SDH increased.

Method—After a brief telephone screening, eligible participants completed baseline self-report questionnaires and experimentally-manipulated negative and neutral mood inductions.

Results—Most notably, results showed a significant TWP × SDH × Mood induction interaction (F (1, 63) = 4.154; Mse = 51.999; p = .046) for positive affect responses. Simple effects indicated that all participants except TWP + SDH individuals experienced a significant decrease in positive affect during the negative compared to the neutral mood condition.

Conclusion—Findings may identify a protective mechanism for relapse among individuals with a history of both TWP and SDH.

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