Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version

December 1998


Published in Child Development 69:6 (December 1998), pp. 1672–1688. Copyright © 1998 by the Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. Published by Blackwell Publishing, Inc. Used by permission. “The definitive version is available at .”


This study examines how experiences in the family domain may magnify or mitigate experiences in the peer domain, and how processes in both milieus may influence adolescent substance use. The data derived from 666 European American mother-adolescent dyads and 510 European American father-adolescent dyads. Consistent with individuation-connectedness theory, mothers’ responsiveness lessened their adolescents’ orientation to peers, which, in turn, reduced adolescent substance use. This process was moderated by maternal values regarding adolescent alcohol use; that is, the relation of maternal responsiveness to adolescent substance use depended on the extent of maternal approval or disapproval of adolescent alcohol use. Among fathers, closer monitoring was directly associated with less adolescent substance use, with stronger effects among fathers who held more disapproving values regarding adolescent alcohol use. Theoretical, methodological, and pragmatic implications are given.