Date of this Version
Food and Chemica! Toxico!ogy 39 (2001) 423-436
Animal stιιdies have shown that dietary intake of benzo[α]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (ΡΑΗ), causes increased levels of tumors at several sites, particιιlarly ίη the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of dietary intake of BaP and cancer ίη humans is not clear. We CIeated a BaP database of selected food products that could be lίnl(ed to Food Frequency Qnestionnaires (FFQs) to estimate BaP intake. BaP levels were measnred for each food line-item (composite samples) which consisted of a variety of foods ίη a FFQ. Composite sample parts were derived from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) which represents the most common food items consumed by the general popιιlation. Meat samples were cooked by different techniqnes ίn controlled conditions, and by varions restanrants and fast-food chains. Non-meat products were purchased from the major national supermarket chains. The qnantities of BaP were measnred using a thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/spectrofluorometer technique and were highly coaelated with both BaP (radius = 0.99) and sum of carcinogenic ΡΑΗ (r=0.98) measured by HPLC technique. We linked our database to the results from a FFQ and estimated the daily BaP intake of various foods is 228 subjects ίn the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The highest levels of BaP (up to abont 4ng BaP/g of cooked meat) were found in grilled/barbecued very well done steaks and hamburgers and in grilled/barbecued well done chicken with skin. BaP concentrations were lower in meats that were grilled/barbecued to medium done and ίη all broiled or pan-fried meat samples regardless of doneness level. The BaP levels in non-meat items were generally low. However, certain cereals and greens (e.g. kale, collard greens) had levels up to 0.5 ng/g. In our population, the bread/cereal/grain, and grilled/barbecued meat, respectively, contributed 29 and 21 Ρeιτent to the mean daily intal(e of BaP. This database may be helpful in initial attempts to assess dietary BaP exposures ίn stιιdies of cancer etiology.