Public Health Resources


Date of this Version



Neville AJ, Zach SJ, Wang X, Larson JJ, Judge AK, Davis LA, Vennerstrom JL, Davis PH. 2015. Clinically available medicines demonstrating anti-Toxoplasma activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:7161–7169.


U.S. Government Work


Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite of humans and other mammals, including livestock and companion animals. While chemotherapeutic regimens, including pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine regimens, ameliorate acute or recrudescent disease such as toxoplasmic encephalitis or ocular toxoplasmosis, these drugs are often toxic to the host. Moreover, no approved options are available to treat infected women who are pregnant. Lastly, no drug regimen has shown the ability to eradicate the chronic stage of infection, which is characterized by chemoresistant intracellular cysts that persist for the life of the host. In an effort to promote additional chemotherapeutic options, we now evaluate clinically available drugs that have shown efficacy in disease models but which lack clinical case reports. Ideally, less-toxic treatments for the acute disease can be identified and developed, with an additional goal of cyst clearance from human and animal hosts.