Public Health Resources


Date of this Version



Transplant Infectious Disease 2016; 18: 921–931


U.S. Government Work


Background: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a common cause of mortality in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), but knowledge of epidemiology in this population is limited.

Method: The present analysis describes data from 15 US centers that prospectively identified IC from nearly 17 000 OTRs. Analyses were undertaken to determine predictors of infection and mortality.

Results: A total of 639 cases of IC were identified. The most common species was Candida albicans (46.3%), followed by Candida glabrata (24.4%) and Candida parapsilosis (8.1%). In 68 cases >1 species was identified. The most common infection site was bloodstream (44%), followed by intra-abdominal

(14%). The most frequently affected allograft groups were liver (41.1%) and kidney (35.3%). All-cause

mortality at 90 days was 26.5% for all species and was highest for Candida tropicalis (44%) and C. parapsilosis (35.2%). Non-white race and female gender were more commonly associated with non-albicans species. A high rate of breakthrough IC was seen in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis (39%). Factors associated with mortality include organ dysfunction, lung transplant, and treatment with a polyene antifungal. The only modifiable factor identified was choice of antifungal drug class based upon infecting Candida species.

Conclusion: These data highlight the common and distinct features of IC in OTRs.