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Research Questions 1. Does students’ abilities to Accurately detect errors relate to their GPA? 2. Which concepts affect student ability to Accurately and Confidently detect errors?

GPA was positively related to accuracy but was unrelated to confidence (Fig. 1)

Subject areas affected students’ accuracy and confidence § Students were more accurate on ecology & evolution models (Fig. 2) § Students were more confident in ecology models and less confident in physiology models (Fig. 2)

Variation in student ability and subject area competency can provide teachers with places to focus and improve science understanding.

Similar to the work of Clark et al 2020, this study gives merely a foundation on how certain principles affect the neural aspects of how students engage in reasoning about biology.