Sociology, Department of


Date of this Version



Journal of Youth and Adolescence 40 (2011), pp. 568–581; doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9551-4


Copyright © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Used by permission.


Research on adolescent self-esteem indicates that adolescence is a time in which individuals experience important changes in their physical, cognitive, and social identities. Prior research suggests that there is a positive relationship between an adolescent’s participation in structured extracurricular activities and well-being in a variety of domains, and some research indicates that these relationships may be dependent on the type of activities in which adolescents participate. Building on previous research, a growth-curve analysis was utilized to examine self-esteem trajectories from adolescence (age 14) to young adulthood (age 26). Using 3 waves of data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5,399; 47.8% male), the analysis estimated a hierarchical growth-curve model emphasizing the effects of age and type of school-based extracurricular activity portfolio, including sports and school clubs, on self-esteem. The results indicated that age had a linear relationship with selfesteem over time. Changes in both the initial level of selfesteem and the growth of self-esteem over time were significantly influenced by the type of extracurricular activity portfolio. The findings were consistent across raceand sex. The results support the utility of examining the longitudinal impact of portfolio type on well-being outcomes.