Sociology, Department of


Date of this Version



Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 176:1 (January 2013), pp. 129–145 ; doi: 10.1111/j.1467-985X.2012.01042.x


Copyright © 2012 Royal Statistical Society. Used by permission.


The paper systematically reviews existing literature on the relationship between the level of effort to recruit a sampled person and the measurement quality of survey data. Hypotheses proposed for this relationship are reviewed. Empirical findings for the relationship between level of effort as measured by paradata (the number of follow-up attempts, refusal conversion and time in the field) and question-specific item non-response rates, aggregate measures of item non-response rates, response accuracy and various measurement errors on attitudinal questions are examined through a qualitative review.